The Czech Republic has a temperate continental climate with relatively hot summers and cold, cloudy winters, usually with snow. Most rain falls during the summer. The temperature difference between summers and winters is relatively high due to the landlocked geographical position.
Within the Czech Republic, temperatures vary greatly depending on the elevation. In general, at higher altitudes the temperatures decrease and precipitation increases. Another important factor is the distribution of the mountains. Therefore the climate is quite varied.
At the highest peak (Sněžka, 1,602 m/5,260 ft) the average temperature is only −0.4 °C (31 °F), whereas in the lowlands of South Moravia, the average temperature is as high as 10 °C (50 °F). The country's capital Prague has a similar average temperature, although this is influenced by urban factors.
The coldest month is usually January, followed by February and December. During these months there is usually snow in the mountains and sometimes in the major cities and lowlands. During March, April and May, the temperature usually increases rapidly, and especially during April the temperature and weather tends to vary widely during the day. Spring is also characterized by high water levels in the rivers due to melting snow, with occasional floods.
The warmest month of the year is July, followed by August and June. On average, summer temperatures are about 20 Celsius or 36 Fahrenheit degrees higher than during winter. Especially in the last decade, temperatures above 30 °C (86 °F) are not unusual. Summer is also characterized by rain and storms.
Autumn generally begins in September, which is still relatively warm, but much drier. During October, temperatures usually fall below 15° or 10°C (59° or 50°F) and deciduous trees begin to shed their leaves. By the end of November, temperatures usually range around the freezing point.